Professor Goldsmith asserted that Australian government doesn't have cyber-security capabilities, and has to rely on companies. I suggested that perhaps we needed the equivalent of a coastguard used to combat piracy, that is a force combining the features of military and police. Professor Goldsmith responded that to combat a network, you need your own network, but that having companies conducting offensive cyber-warfare was problematic. The solution, I suggest, is to have reserve ADF personnel, who are continually trained using educational technology, working for the companies. They can look for attacks in their civilian day job, and if an offensive response is needed, put on their uniform.
Egloff, F. (2018). Cybersecurity and non-state actors: a historical analogy with mercantile companies, privateers, and pirates [PhD thesis]. University of Oxford. https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:77eb9bad-ca00-48b3-abcf-d284c6d27571/